Risk indicators provide a forecast for the probability of certain damage scenarios (the risk) to occur in different compartments of the natural environment (for example soil, water). Those risk indicators are calculated in the authorization process on the basis of data and models. It is advisable to obtain an overview of the actual situation after the admission with the help of chemical and biological monitoring data. The reasoning is to identify possible contaminations and to obtain a sounder background for specific measures to be taken, for example within the frame of the hot spot management. In connection with individual authorization processes sometimes monitoring studies targeted to special problems are undertaken. In this regard these studies can be directly relevant for the decision-making. They have to be distinguished from general monitoring studies that are explained hereafter. Those studies often bear no clear connection between the appropriate usage of a product and the determined residues.
Such monitoring data often are already available or can be surveyed in general monitoring of the environment. They may be used to validate and calibrate risk indicators. They are indicators that describe the actual situation themselves though.